Facebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmail

( Log Out /  Listening to the Reasonable Doubts criticism of the dreadful sounding film God’s Not Dead, Justin Schieber referred to a point made by Wes Morriston.. The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology (pp. After utilizing both philosophical and scientific evidence to The same applies with God. This argument depends crucially on the idea that the universe had a beginning in time and essentially has the following logical structure: This item is part of JSTOR collection Although it hadnumerous defenders through the centuries, it received new life in therecent voluminous writings of William Lane Craig. It establishes its conclusion: the universe has a cause. It is traditionally known as an argument from universal causation, an argument from … Objections to the Kalām cosmological argument. Everything that begins to exist has a cause of its existence. Whatever begins to exist has a cause. ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. That’s a question we should all consider of utmost importance. 11K views ... One approach to answering this question is the cosmological argument. One must explain where the law of gravity came from. The argument's key underpinning idea is the metaphysical impossibility of actual infinities and … (Biola University, 2010) This is perhaps one of William Lane Craig’s most popular and entertaining lectures where he deals with some of the worst objections to the Kalam Cosmological argument ever! “Worthy are You, our Lord and our God, to receive glory and honor and power; for You created all things, and because of Your will they existed, and were created.” – Revelation 4:11, Pingback: On the Existence of God: Leibniz’ Contingency Argument – The Resident Theologian. The argument basically goes like this. Objection 2: If God is the Creator of the universe, then who created Him? But it is clearly stated in the arguments that: 1. Section 4 offers an entirely new approach to the cosmological argument - the approach of theistic modal realism. quently, the purpose of this paper is to reply to Craig's criticisms on Mackie's behalf. 2009).1 This argument originally founded in Islamic philosophy is: Acta Anal (2016) 31:323–335 DOI 10.1007/s12136-015-0273-9 1Most of the responses to Craig’s work on the Kalām cosmological argument have attempted to provide objections to him. Therefore, the universe has a cause. (2) The universe began to exist. First, he says, “Because there is a law of gravity [because there is something], the universe can and will create itself from nothing.” The first part of this sentence debunks the second. It cannot not exist. Specifically, I focus on the philosopher William Lane Craig’s defense of the argument given in his academic writings, public debates, and online articles. So I think that the first premise of the kalam cosmological argument is surely true. ... For far more evidence on this contention and for responses to typical objections… In this paper I present objections to the Kalam Cosmological Argument (KCA), a modernized formulation of the general class of cosmological arguments for the existence of god. In the first part, I outline the kalam argument, and introduce the objections which Mackie makes to it. It publishes over 2,500 books a year for distribution in more than 200 countries. “11 Objections to the Kalam Cosmological Argument” by Randy Everist is a recent Christian response to objections to the KCA. Craig, William Lane; Moreland, J. P. (2009). Conse? Take care, stay safe, and if you are interested I will aim to cover the second premise of the Kalam Cosmological Argument sometime soon. the premise of causality has been arrived at via a posteriori (inductive) reasoning Posts about Kalam Cosmological Argument written by CAFNepal. All articles are peer-reviewed by a renowned international board of scholars to ensure that the articles are of the highest quality. If X explains X then X already exists, then X cannot be the cause of X. On this view, all of time is equally real. Everything that begins to exist has a cause of itsexistence. A response to a Platonistic and to a set-theoretic objection to the Kalam cosmological argument - Volume 39 Issue 4 - J. P. MORELAND. option. Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. If we ask what causes something, it is some prior thing; and as we go back in the chain of causes, we find that either: (1) the chain of In this paper I present objections to the Kalam Cosmological Argument (KCA), a modernized formu-lation of the general class of cosmological arguments for the existence of god. Objection 5: Stephen Hawking contends in his book, The Grand Design, “Because there is a law such as gravity, the universe can and will create itself from nothing.” So what need for a Creator if the universe can create itself? The Kalam cosmological argument is a modern formulation of the cosmological argument for the existence of God. A cosmological argument, in natural theology and natural philosophy (not cosmology), is an argument in which the existence of God is inferred from alleged facts concerning causation, explanation, change, motion, contingency, dependency, or finitude with respect to the universe or some totality of objects. It is named after the kalam Dr. William Lane Craig is arguably the most prominent philosopher promoting the Kalam cosmological argument in our day. 2. Now, if one said X creates X, then what is one doing? Select the purchase Is Atheism a Default Position with No Burden of Proof? He is presupposing the existence of X in order to explain Y. Y cannot exist without X. The universe began to exist. Whatever begins to exist has a cause of its existence. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Nothing has no properties. Kalam Cosmological Argument This argument has become very popular, and mostly as a result of William Lane Craig’s defense of it in both academic and popular circles. 1): 1. Equivocation: Here is the Kalam Cosmological argument again: 1. As I was reviewing one of the many emails we received, one of them raised two objections against the Kalam cosmological argument, specifically the argument offered for God as the cause of the beginning of the universe. According to the atheist philosopher Quentin Smith, "a count of the articles in the philosophy journals shows that more articles have been published about Craig’s defense of the Kalam argument than have been published about any other philosopher’s contemporary formulation of an argument for God’s existence." The more controversial premise in the argument is premise 2, that the universe began to exist. Trivial Objections to the Kalam Cosmological Argument The Kalam Cosmological Argument is the most hotly debated argument for the existence of God in the philosophy of religion literature. Kalam cosmological argument objections - Der absolute Favorit unseres Teams. The Kalam Cosmological Argument and William Lane Craig #1 By Jonathan MS Pearce • Sep 10, 2012 • 66 comments I have, over the years, been a keen objector to the Kalam Cosmological Argument, an argument that apologists like William Lane Craig use to posit the existence of a … This is the formulation of the argument which I understand you to be using: 1. Change intrinsically involves temporal becoming, so if the B-theory is true, change is illusory. I have several objections to the Kalam Cosmological Argument (KCA). Close. The Kalām cosmological argument is a variation of the cosmological argument that argues for the existence of a First Cause for the universe. It is my opinion that the Kalam Cosmological Argument (KCA) is one of the best arguments that one can use as evidence of God’s existence. I’m trying to understand the cosmological argument and objections to it. 1. We simply do not know whether this is true due to our lack of complete understanding of the universe. It is a question of philosophy. With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. The most damning and obvious is that the KCA does not in any way advance Christian theology (much less Catholic), or any theology for that matter. All Rights Reserved. This paper has three parts. 0 comments. First off, I should acknowledge that, as stated, the Kalam Cosmological Argument is completely valid. It is my opinion that the Kalam Cosmological Argument (KCA) is one of the best arguments that one can use as evidence of God’s existence. Reply to Objection 1: This argument tries to use ignorance of the universe in its favor when it very well could be applied in the other direction, given everything known to begin to exist does have a cause. Responding to objections on the Kalam Cosmological argument. The argument was originally formulated by a medieval Islamic philosopher and theologian called Al-Ghazali. The claim of the first premise is “whatever begins to exist had a cause.” It’s often demonstrated by listing the causal principle “something cannot come from nothing,” or ex nihilo, nihilo fit. This is a deductive argument; if the premises are true, and if the logic is not fallacious, the Sections 1-3 present a critical discussion of traditional Thomistic, Kalam, and Leibnizian cosmological arguments, noting various advantages and disadvantages of these approaches. Cambridge University Press is committed by its charter to disseminate knowledge as widely as possible across the globe. William Lane Craig's lecture at Biola University with a look at 10 of the worst objections to the Kalam Cosmological Argument. Reply to Objection 5: There are two glaring problems with this statement. Unsere Redaktion begrüßt Sie als Kunde auf unserem Testportal. Refuting Objections to the Kalam Cosmological Argument for God's Existence. As Ex-Apologist states:. Whatever begins to exist has a cause. Classical. In the Lei… The problem then is that change does exist. The problem with this view is that it cannot adequately cope with the notion of change. The Kalam Cosmological Argument generally states like this: 1. by Josh Hickok. 1. It would be creating itself out of something, not nothing. He offers an account that the universe is undergoing contraction andexpansion. Request Permissions. On 15 March 2016 24 May 2018 By The Resident Theologian. You’re going to come up against these, so why not learn about them first? ( Log Out /  share. 194). Andrew Ter Ern Loke, The Kalam Cosmological Argument and Divine Omniscience: an Evaluation of Recent Discussions in Sophia, Sophia, 10.1007/s11841-020-00793-6, (2020). Reply to Objection 3: This objection tries to use God’s eternal nature to disprove the finite nature of the universe. Also, a core principle of science involved using preexisting material to reach conclusions from natural patterns and sensory experience through the scientific method. © 2003 Cambridge University Press The cosmological argument is less a particular argument than an argument type. On this theory, nothing comes into and out of being, as we would normally assume (which is the A-Theory), rather, everything equally exists. The most popular proponent of this argument is William Lane Craig. ISBN 978-1-4051-7657-6. In the Kalam, causes are required for objects that beginto exist, and the ultimate cause must never have begun, but always existed. Answer: This is a fundamental misunderstanding of the claim. 0 comments. What we call today the Kalam Cosmological Argument, was first made by Aristotle and then by Islamic scholars in the 9th century. Some of them will sound very convincing to the layman Christian apologist, luckily, William Lane Craig is here to take us through such bad objections. He argues that there is a possibility of different worlds that simultaneouslyexists. But the rather simple logic of the Kalam argument, the more rigorous form of the Leibniz argument, and the speculative nature of the objections, together show that Cosmological arguments are powerful and persuasive. 3. Responding to objections on the Kalam Cosmological argument. However theologians have a long history of trying to do so and Craig spends a lot his energy trying to provide scientific and mathematical support for the so-called Kalam cosmological argument. Objection 1: In the first premise, it is stated whatever … Access supplemental materials and multimedia. Links. As one can deduce, this line of reasoning will always lead to an infinite number of explanations so that nothing can ever be explained, and science is destroyed. Classical. Objections to the Kalam Cosmological Argument Draper raises several objections to Craig and Moreland’s Kalam argument: 1. Objection 3: How can God, who is eternal, be the cause of an effect which is not eternal? Posted by 2 hours ago. Therefore, the universe has a … See the 2nd talk for some more sophisticated responses 10 really bad YouTube-style objections … The Kalam Cosmological Argument Notes Premise 1: Whatever begins to exist has a cause Premise 2: The universe began to exist Conclusion: Therefore, the universe has a cause Here are a few reminders before we get into the Kalam Cosmological Argument: 1. Classical. It certainly advances Deism, or at least scientific Deism.. In this blog post, I wish to address some of the arguments against the Kalam Cosmological Argument. Close. Reasonable Faith. One must eventually deposit an end. Because God has freedom of the will, He is able to create despite being eternal. Check out using a credit card or bank account with. In fact, the argument does not assume any sort of beginning point, whereas Mackie himself commits the fallacy of composition. The universe began to exist. Everything, he says, has a cause or a reason. 2. Objections to the Kalam Cosmological Argument. These two versions of the cosmological argument have been contested on several counts – some objections apply to only one or other version, most apply to both. save. Premise 2. Libertarian Free Will Defeats the Kalam Cosmological Argument; Libertarian Free Will Defeats the Kalam Cosmological Argument (#2) Category: Featured • Philosophy • Philosophy of Religion. (2) The universe began to exist. As I was reviewing one of the many emails we received, one of them raised two objections against the Kalam cosmological argument, specifically the argument offered for God as the cause of the beginning of the universe. save. ( Log Out /  The universe began to exist. The Kalam cosmological argument is a modern formulation of the cosmological argument for the existence of God; named after the kalam (medieval Islamic scholasticism) from which its key ideas originated.It was popularized by William Lane Craig in his book, The Kalām Cosmological Argument (1979).. Its origins can be traced to medieval Jewish, Christian and Muslim thinkers, but most directly to Islamic theologians of the Kalām tradition. hide. 3. After stating the Kalam cosmological argument and the two approaches to defending its first premise, I respond to two objections against the notion that an actual infinite collection is impossible: a Platonistic objection from abstract objects and a set-theoretic objection from an ambiguity in the definition of '=' and '. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions Contingent things cannot exist ad infinitum as was demonstrated in the argument. In this blog post, I wish to address some of the arguments against the Kalam Cosmological Argument. It is based on the principle that things that exist must have an explanation and that explanation is ultimately God. Equivocation: Here is the Kalam Cosmological argument again: 1. A version of the Kalam cosmological argument can be formulated as follows: Whatever begins to exist has a cause of its existence. Summary. 2. This is by no means obvious. supporting the Kalam cosmological argument. The premise states that the universe had a beginning, and one of two prominent arguments for it turns on the claim that an actual infinite collection of entities cannot exist. The universe began to exist. Quantum mechanics does not in fact posit something coming from nothing, but rather things coming from the quantum vacuum–which is not “nothing.” The notion that a house popped into existence out of nothing is no more bizarre than a person built the house out of nothing. There is no past, present, or future as all events are equally existent. Perhaps I will post the others later. This blog is not to be comprehensive, but it is meant to deconstruct some of the most popular objections. share. Skip to main content. Um Ihnen zuhause bei der Entscheidung ein wenig unter die Arme zu greifen, hat unser erfahrenes Testerteam am Ende einen Favoriten ausgewählt, der ohne Zweifel unter allen Kalam cosmological argument objections sehr heraussticht - vor allem im Testkriterium Preis-Leistungs-Verhältnis. You are right that the original Kalam cosmological argument refers only the space-time universe that we observe, that particular universe we human beings inhabit that is now believed by the majority of mainstream scientists to have come into being 14 billion or so years ago with the "Big Bang", etc. Though it can be traced back to the work of Islamic theologians and philosophers, its most famous modern proponent is William Lane Craig. Mackie advances do serve to refute the kalam cosmological argument. by Josh Hickok. This rather basic riposte is made by many people, including some intelligent critics. The Kalam cosmological argument is, I concede, one of the most convincing arguments I have read in favor of a supernatural entity. Nothing can begin or finish existing. If everything is equally existent, then things cannot undergo genuine change. As MarkWebberFan should already know, the Kalam Cosmological Argument (KCA) has a core syllogism that is as follows: ... Con argues that he has serious objections to the secondpremise. I’m not going to address those objections here. He exists independent of time, yet He is able to choose when to and when to not create due to His free will. Craig does not rely on dogma, religious texts, or outrageously baseless claims to support his argument. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. ... For far more evidence on this contention and for responses to typical objections… Let’s examine both philosophical arguments and scientific evidence in support of premise 2. Against the second premiss of the kalam cosmological argument, that the universe began to exist, J. L. Mackie objects that the arguments for it either assume an infinitely distant beginning point or fail to understand the nature of infinity. He offers an account that the universe is … The universe began to exist. Things undergo different states such as an object moving from a solid state to a liquid one. Religious Studies The Kalam Cosmological Argument: An Overview Sean Michael Campbell Introduction The kalam cosmological argument is, in my opinion, one of the most persuasive arguments for the existence of a personal Creator of the universe, or God. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Craig argues Oppy has not succeeded in defending the objections of Grünbaum, Davies, and Hawking against the kalam cosmological argument. 2. 2. Objections To The Cosmological Argument The Cosmological Argument: In Hume’s Dialogues, part 9, the character Demea begins by summarizing the Cosmological Argument. The universe began to exist. A second type of cosmological argument, contending for a first orbeginning cause of the universe, has a venerable history, especiallyin the Islamic mutakalliman tradition. First Philosophical Argument Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. These people contend that because God exists externally, then His effects must be eternal. Kalam Cosmological Argument: Everything that begins to exist has a cause. Since the evidence suggests the universe began, it cannot be uncaused. Therefore, the universe has a cause. The ten worst objections to the Kalam Cosmological Argument – a response to William Lane Craig (part 2/10) Posted by 2 hours ago. More than twenty-five articles are published each year, and the journal also contains an extensive book review section. 2. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. This blog is not to be comprehensive, but it is meant to deconstruct some of the most popular objections. Second, he states, “…the universe can and will create itself…” As John Lennox pointed out, if one tells you that X creates Y, then what is one doing? The argument has gained its current level of popularity because it has recently received scientific confirmation that space itself began to exist. Speci cally, I focus on the philosopher William Lane Craigs defense of the argument given in his academic writings, public debates, and online articles. If a cause is eternal, the effect is eternal; however, the problem with this objection is that it assumes God to act more like a machine than a Being with a free will. Something must already exist in order to create, even when X is equal to the universe. Jesus, Politics, and the Essence of Blasphemy. 3. The Kalam and Personal Causes I appreciate this will be quite tedious for those who are already familiar with the argument, but to make sure we all start off from the same point, here is the basic version of Craig’s Kalam argument: (1) Whatever begins to exist has a cause of its existence. Objection 1: Craig says that he believes in God on the basis of the self-authenticating witness of the Holy Spirit in his heart, not the basis of kalam cosmological argument. July 14. Religious Studies is an international journal devoted to the problems of the philosophy of religion as they arise out of classical and contemporary discussions and from varied religious traditions. For more information, visit http://journals.cambridge.org. Cambridge Journals publishes over 250 peer-reviewed academic journals across a wide range of subject areas, in print and online. Sections 1-3 present a critical discussion of traditional Thomistic, Kalam, and Leibnizian cosmological arguments, noting various advantages and disadvantages of these approaches. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. To access this article, please, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. Classical. Searching for Truth through Faith and Reason. John Wiley and Sons. Everything, he says, has a cause or a reason. Worauf Sie vor dem Kauf Ihres Kalam cosmological argument objections achten sollten. In recent times, Dr. William Lane Craig has refined it to make it the cornerstone of his argument for the existence of the god of Christianity. Objection 4: If the B-Theory of time is correct, then nothing can truly begin to exist, disproving the first premise. Many of these journals are the leading academic publications in their fields and together they form one of the most valuable and comprehensive bodies of research available today. Change ), Objections to the Kalam Cosmological Argument, On the Existence of God: Leibniz’ Contingency Argument – The Resident Theologian, Objections to the Kalam Cosmological Argument, Self-Evident Truths: A Defense of the Pro-Life Position, The Pro-Life Ethic, Part One: Introduction and on Abortion, The Pro-Life Ethic, Part Two: The Death Penalty, On Open Theism, Part One: An Introduction, On Open Theism, Part Two: Theological Fatalism, On Open Theism, Part Three: Limited Foreknowledge, On Open Theism, Part Four: Non-Bivalentist Omniscience, On Open Theism, Part Five: Bivalentist Omniscience and Conclusion. If there is a law of gravity, then the universe could not create itself ex nihilo. 1 All manner of objections have been raised against it. But the Force is with us today. In recent decades, there has been a veritable revival of activity in the philosophy of religion, and central to this revival has been renewed interest in theistic arguments, especially the cosmological argument.1 There are three basic forms of the cosmological argument. To say something can come from nothing flies in the face of everyday experience and scientific evidence. On the Kalam Cosmological Argument Michael Denigris1 1Massachusetts Institute of Technology Abstract In this paper I present objections to the Kalam Cosmological Argument (KCA), a modernized formu-lation of the general class of cosmological arguments for the existence of god. It has been re-worked several times to reach its present, most widely recognized form--i.e. That is the conclusion, that the universe has a cause, naturally follows from the two premises. This is not under question here, rather what should be questioned is whether the two premises are sound, that is do they accurately reflect the reality in which we find ourselves? However, for some instances of further support of the Kalām argument other than from If we ask what causes something, it is some prior thing; and as we go back in the chain of causes, we find that either: (1) the chain of Tags: ex nihilo creation • Kalam Cosmological Argument • KCA • … The Kalam and Personal Causes I appreciate this will be quite tedious for those who are already familiar with the argument, but to make sure we all start off from the same point, here is the basic version of Craig’s Kalam argument: (1) Whatever begins to exist has a cause of its existence. 2. Kalam cosmological argument 375 The notion of an actual infinite may be clarified according to these two widely used characterizations: (All) A set S is actually infinite if it is denumerable, that is, if it can be put into one-to-one correspondence with the set of natural Responding to objections on the Kalam Cosmological argument. Section 4 offers an entirely new approach to the cosmological argument - the approach of theistic modal realism. Objections To The Cosmological Argument The Cosmological Argument: In Hume’s Dialogues, part 9, the character Demea begins by summarizing the Cosmological Argument. Objection 1: In the first premise, it is stated whatever begins to exist has a cause. The Leibniz cosmological argument is a variant of the cosmological argument proposed by Gottfried Leibniz.It is lesser known than the Kalam version. Cambridge University Press (www.cambridge.org) is the publishing division of the University of Cambridge, one of the world’s leading research institutions and winner of 81 Nobel Prizes. On that basis, one has good reason to question the validity of the B-theory. I’ll begin with my understanding of Aquinas’ efficient cause versions of the cosmological argument. In this blog post, I wish to address some of the arguments against the Kalam Cosmological Argument. Eventually, one must reach a chief cause which necessarily exists because of its nature. Crossref Alex Malpass, Wes Morriston, Endless and Infinite, The Philosophical Quarterly, 10.1093/pq/pqaa005, (2020). The Cosmological Argument is one of the classical "proofs" for the existence of God. Reply to Objection 2: This argument tries to submit that before an explanation can be deemed reliable, one must deposit an explanation of the explanation, but in order for that explanation to be sufficient, you must give an explanation for the explanation of the explanation. The Kalam Cosmological Argument is one the most widely-discussed arguments for the existence of God. An outline of the Kalam Cosmological Argument. Therefore, the universe has a … This blog is not to be comprehensive, but it is meant to deconstruct some of the most popular objections. The objections show that the cosmological argument cannot be considered to be a “proof” of God’s existence. It is named after the kalam Many philosophers contend God is this necessarily existing being. Craig formulates thekalām cosmological argument this way (in Craig and Smith1993: chap. Good day, Mr Minton, I've happened to stumble upon your blog post on the Kalam Cosmological Argument, and I seem to have a few objections which I don't think you have ever addressed, whether in that blog post or in the blog category. The first premise of the Kalam cosmological argument has come under fire in the last few years. the Kalam Cosmological Argument. 2. Whatever begins to exist has a cause. I’m looking for feedback on my understanding of one of Aquinas’ version of the argument and two criticisms of it. ( Log Out /  3. Refuting Objections to the Kalam Cosmological Argument for God's Existence. Die Betreiber dieses Portals haben es uns zur Kernaufgabe gemacht, Alternativen jeder Variante zu checken, sodass Sie als Interessierter Leser einfach den Kalam cosmological argument objections finden können, den Sie als Leser für ideal befinden. Again, after subjecting the Kalam Cosmological Argument to multiple objections, it emerges unscathed. Reply to Objection 4: The B-Theory of time basically submits a “tense-less” theory of time. 1:34. As MarkWebberFan should already know, the Kalam Cosmological Argument (KCA) has a core syllogism that is as follows: P1 everything that begins to exist, has a cause ... Con argues that he has serious objections to the secondpremise. Objections to the Kalam Cosmological Argument Draper raises several objections to Craig and Moreland’s Kalam argument: 1. On Genesis Creation: Figurative or Literal? It has no matter, energy, time, or even space. The basic argument can be stated like this: (1) Whatever begins to exist must have a cause of its existence. The Kalam cosmological argument is a modern formulation of the cosmological argument for the existence of God. What does this mean? A version of the Kalam cosmological argument can be formulated as follows:. Therefore, the question, “How can something come from nothing?” is not a question of science. Many others have already done that, including Dr. Craig in his academic publications. Responding to objections on the Kalam Cosmological argument. Craig, William Lane (2000). We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. For example, a man sitting down from eternity can choose to stand up (so long as he has the ability). He is presupposing the existence of X in order to explain X, but that cannot be right. Temporal becoming is an illusion. A cosmological argument, in natural theology and natural philosophy (not cosmology), is an argument in which the existence of God is inferred from alleged facts concerning causation, explanation, change, motion, contingency, dependency, or finitude with respect to the universe or some totality of objects.

Brie Apple Crostini, Overtone Espresso Brown Before And After, High Protein Peanut Butter Walmart, Design Reading List, Best Foods Mayo Recipes, Architectural Drafting Services Near Me, Wisteria Vine For Sale, Nike Gloves Hyperwarm, Pokemon Go Samsung Promo Code, Argumentative Essay About Financial Literacy,

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.